A researcher or professional engaged in the field of psychology, is known as a psychologist, and could either be a cognitive, behavioral or social scientist. The goal of Psychologist, is to understand how the mental function influences the behavior of an individual, while at the same time exploring the biological and physiological processes that govern cognitive function and behaviors.
Psychologists have studied concepts like attention, perception, emotion, phenomenology, functioning of the brain, family resilience, cognition, personality, interpersonal relationships, behavior, intelligence and motivation. Psychologists of different fields have all studied the unconscious mind. The human mind is known to be very curious. The older we get, the more we wonder. Just like science, psychology first starts with a question, offers theoretical explanation, and then verifies the validity of this theory by engaging laboratory experimentation. Psychologists often make use of knowledge acquired from research in developing strategies which will be used in developing solutions that will better our lives.
It can then be said that psychologist work every day to develop solutions that will help make the world a better place. The human brain is one of the most amazing and complex tools. W use our brain to see, memorize, hear, understand, perceive, and communicate. There are times our brain become a torn in the flesh. Through cognitive psychology, we have been able to understand how people store, acquire, and processes information. This also includes how we get to learn a language, and the link between emotion and cognition. Latest technological breakthrough like Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI , has given the researchers a clear picture into the functioning of the brain.
This in turn has enabled them to understand stimulants the brain reacts to and also how the brain affects the wellbeing and cognitive functions of an individual. Personality Personality psychology studies patterns of behavior, thoughts and emotions which affect an individual. Collectively, this is known as personality.
Different schools of psychology have different orientation of personality. In the view of Freud, personality is dependent on ego, id, and super-ego. On the other hand, Trait theorists have studied personality via certain discreet key traits, using a statistical method known as factor analysis. Unconscious mind During the early stages of Psychology, psychologist first studied the unconscious mind, which is awareness beyond an individual, which controls certain thoughts and behaviors.
Joseph Jastrow and C. S Peirce who were one of the early pioneers of psychology in the United States, discovered in that an individual can choose heavier of two weights even when unaware of the difference. In , he published The Psychopathology of Everyday Life which outlined hundreds of our normal daily activities which Freud used in explaining the influence of the unconscious mind. The unconscious mind has become central to the study of psychology. Motivation Psychologist William James at first used motivation to describe intention, with his concept having the similitude of will used in European philosophy.
As Freudian and Darwinian thinking became more popular, researchers came to see instincts as a major source of motivation. As explained in drive theory, when the forces of instincts blend with a single source of energy, some form of constant influence is created. They are of the opinion that forces like sexual instinct become infused and transmuted within the psyche.
Classical psychoanalysis is often viewed as the struggle that exist between reality principle and pleasure principle, which is somewhat similar to id and ego. Shortly after that, Freud came up with the concept of death drive which he explained in Beyond the Pleasure Principle as a compulsion to behave destructively and aggressively when confronted with traumatic events. The fundamental motivation among most animals has always been thirst, hunger, sexual desire and fear. Humans as well display this instincts but in a complex form, though most theories agree that the motivation for humans come from primordial instincts such as self-image, desire to belong, love, trust, contol.
There are diverse ways through which motivation can be manipulated. It has been observed by researchers that eating for instance goes beyond the fundamental need of a creature to achieve homeostasis there are some other factors which influence hunger and they are circadian rhythm, availability of food, cost and palatability of food. Abstract motivation can be manipulated, as proven by concept of goal contagion; adoption of goals unconsciously based on the goals set by others.
In their opinion, this principle also applies to sex, food, sleep and drinking. Its eponymous subject — here, a simulacrum in a turn-of-the-century wax museum — troubles the poem's lyric subject, a would-be poet and presumed stand-in for Blok. Blok's poem thereby complicates Walter Benjamin's famous conceptualization of reproducible simulacra and auratic originals, and instead argues that phantasmagoric fetishes can indeed inspire, and participate in, poetic dialogue.
In his manuscripts for The Master and Margarita , M. One of the defining differences between these two versions is that generalized banya imagery, with significant architectural details from the Sandunov Banyas Sanduny in Moscow, characterizes the second, larger version of the Ball. The emphasis in much current translation research is based on the theory that retranslations tend to be getting back to the source text. The article focuses on the translations of lexical Sovietisms. A complete domestication of Sovietisms may lead to a loss of some connotative meaning essential for understanding the context, while foreignization of terms which are most likely unknown to western readers may disturb the fluidity of reading and cause confusion.
My comparative analysis employs the Retranslation Hypothesis as well as taxonomies suggested by Vlakhov and Florin , and Davies ; they form the basis for this case study. Gogol lived in Rome intermittently between and and there he penned some of his most important works. As he himself claimed, Rome provided him with the necessary distance to see Russia and write about it. But despite his long sojourn in Italy, he did not produce a significant text on an Italian theme or a travel narrative. I argue that structurally, the fragment is organized by physical movement through European and Roman space and rhetorically, the text adopts the literary and visual tropes of the eighteenth-century Grand Tour to Italy.
But the Gogolian Grand Tour arrives with a twist: Gogol reverses the traditional itinerary Paris — Rome, and posits Rome as both originating point and final destination, with Paris merely as a detour — and, as I suggest, as a foil to Rome. In this respect, the article draws on existing historical and sociocultural research on nineteenth-century fatherhood Igor Kon, John Tosh and others , which has moved away from the portrait of the nineteenth-century father as a patriarch with unlimited power towards a more nuanced view of him as a subject who operates within specific historical conditions.
The study focuses on Lebedinyi stan The Demesne of the Swans , which contains sixty-two poems written between March and December Chernyshevsky, the famous radical critic, whose biography comprises the fourth chapter of the novel. Chernyshevsky, on the other hand, fails to recognize the formations of unaccented syllables, which thereby precludes his proper understanding of Russian verse form. Compared to the dilettantism of Yasha Chernyshevsky and the poetic poverty of N.
This article reflects on memories, language, translation and literary creation in the autobiographical oeuvre of Vladimir Nabokov. Nabokov wrote his memoirs first in English Conclusive Evidence , then self-translated them into Russian Drugie berega , and created a revised English version Speak, Memory. I track how his memoirs evolved from English to Russian, the language in which most of the memories narrated took place, and back into English.
By including Speak, Memory in my analysis I put to test the results of previous literary studies, which had paid more attention to the English-to-Russian rewriting. My work first shows that whereas the English rewriting increases the amount of detail in the text, the Russian gives rise to the most emotional changes. Finally, I incorporate the results of psycholinguistic studies on Russian-English bilinguals into my own analysis. The influence of Grand Princess Euphrosyne second wife of Prince Roman Mstislavovitch explains the appearance among the Galician-Volhynian princes of Christian names which were unusual and unique for the Rurikides.
This is the name Daniel, which was later included into the name list of the Moscow princes. This name spread among the princes due to the expansion of the cult of St Daniel the Stylite and the rising interest in the attributes of Stylitism. This can be seen in sphragistics and in the numerous architectural monuments of Galician-Volhynian Rus' of the 13th—early 14th century. Thanks to the family links between the Galician-Volhynian and the Vladimir-Suzdal princes, this cult spread in the North-Eastern Rus' and later to Moscow.
The fact that Euphrosyne of Galicia was the daughter of Basileus Isaak II explains the unexpected rise of interest in Stylitism among the princes of Rus' and their milieu. Thus he astonished his contemporaries, since the Stylites had lost the influence over the emperors that they had exerted at the time of iconoclasm. The Byzantine hagiography concerning Sts. Daniel the Stylite was the spiritual father and the main adviser of Emperor Leo I. Apparently this relationship was reflected in the names of the father and the son, the Galician-Volhynian princes Daniel Romanovich and Lev Danilovich.
He impresses Stalin with his act, sliding all the way up close to Stalin on his knees while blinded by his hood pulled over his eyes. But Stalin suspects he has seen the man before. The secret of their first encounter will ensure the suspense of the narrative, focused on the feast in an Abkhazian sanitarium honoring Stalin and featuring his inner circle: Beria, Voroshilov, Kalinin and others. His characters do not so much communicate verbally as perform before each other. Often they keep silent, but strike telling postures and assume marked facial expressions. When they do speak, rather than stating what they mean, they say something else, expecting the other to infer their message from the silent language of mime.
Reading Iskander, one is immersed in intense semiotic interaction. This system has three major functions. First, children and texts complexly interact in the larger endeavor to preserve traces of the fragile past into an uncertain future. Finally, genealogical figures form a metapoetic level that mirrors and focuses interpretation of the literary text. The central question discussed in my paper is how poetics of water is metaphorically present in visual discourses of boundary transgression and blending, both static and dynamic, namely painting and film of the Russian Symbolist period.
In my analysis of the painterly and cinematic texts selected, I apply concepts from cognitive linguistics, specifically Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Conceptual Blending Theory that see the roots of the human proclivity for metaphor in somatic embodied experiences. Borisov-Musatov and two scenes from a film by E. The innovative aspect of my work is found in my applying it to interacting art forms, which supports the central stance of Conceptual Metaphor Theory: that metaphor is not just a figure of language, but first and foremost, a figure of thought.
As small as this class of nouns is, their examination raises several issues. Among other things it involves us in an examination of whether or not partner nouns can combine with numerals, for on this question, according to Saloni , their gender, or agreement class soglasovatel'naja klassa , after Zaliznjak , depends. After discussing partner nouns as a lexical-semantic class, including their socio-linguistic aspect from the contemporary point of view, their commonly perceived sexism , we direct attention to the question of the agreement class of partner nouns in - o stwo based on their combinability, or lack of it, with numerals.
We conclude that they are logically countable, but that in practice they are not counted for lack of need, the lack of an appropriate counting model, and because of the existence of a serviceable paraphrase model for avoiding having to count them. In the end, we conclude that, in any case, numerical combinability cannot be used as a reliable indicator of gender in Polish, because the system of collective numerals on which it is mainly based is atrophying and unstable. In particular, two elements are missing from the second part: the role of hypermetrical stress and the relative strength of stresses on strong syllables.
Taranovsky recognized these phenomena, but they are nowhere reflected in his statistical data and conclusions, presumably because to take them into account would require an element of subjectivity. Taranovsky and his followers were proud that they could produce verifiable repeatable results. However, these results can only be repeated by scholars who agree on the same strict set of rhythmic conventions.
The author of this essay argues that these conventions are oversimplifications.
Famous People Named Aleksandar
By omitting the question of hypermetrical stress, Taranovsky ignores some of the most important and memorable lines of Russian poetry. The paper ultimately suggests that scholars of verse should be more concerned with poetry as performance and less with the attempts to turn verse rhythm into an exact science. This retrospective review-essay sets Melodics in multiple contexts.
What remains of permanent value in Melodics is a body of brilliant syntactical observations on Zhukovsky, Pushkin, Lermontov, Tiutchev, and Fet. Any, James M. I first provide a sketch of the work of Sergei Bernshtein and Sofia Vysheslavtseva, two declamation theorists who were personally acquainted with Mandelstam and whose work both informed and was, in turn, informed by his declamations. I then go on to reflect on what we can glean from the way Mandelstam reads his lyric.
This reveals what might be called choreography in the mouth — gestural patterns that lead into a somatic experience of the poem and provide it with an additional layer of structure. I close by thinking about what is lost when the oral realization of a poem is disregarded. This article examines the prosody and other features of Hebrew and Yiddish translations of Eugene Onegin , which were composed as a part of Ashkenazi Jewish cultural movements in Eastern Europe, Russia, and Palestine.
Russian literature played an important role within the history of modern literature in both Hebrew and Yiddish. Translating Russian literature tested the limits of the literary Yiddish and Hebrew languages. The changes in Hebrew pronunciation during this period were reflected clearly in the changing limits of the ability of writers to translate Onegin.
Though motivated by an inward-facing drive to produce modern and Western literature in one Jewish language or another, these translations were also a manifestation of the cultural bond between secular, East European Jewish intellectuals and Russian literature. I argue that for both predicaments, Khodasevich proposes an identical solution: the redemptive assimilation into Russian imperial, supranational culture. This vision crystallized during World War I. Yet an attempt to realize this vision in the poem discussed underscores its inner ambiguity, since it reinforces clear-cut imperial narratives of Russia as the epitome of humanitarian values while leaving the logic of imperial power struggle untouched.
The subject matter of this paper is the "Soviet language" SovYaz for short , a variety of Russian that was used in official contexts during the Soviet period. The use of the term "Soviet language" does not signify a commitment to viewing it as a language or a dialect in the linguistic sense. The question of whether SovYaz is, in fact, a social dialect sensu stricto, is beyond the scope of this paper and irrelevant to its purposes, although the materials presented here may help clarify the argument.
This study of SovYaz seeks to utilize three relatively recent developments: newly opened archives with previously unimaginable sources of linguistic data; abundant searchable texts in electronic form; and a powerful new research tool, the National Corpus of the Russian Language NCRL. The goal is methodological--to illustrate an approach to the study of SovYaz made possible by these new developments. The paper makes extensive use of the following procedure.
First, a feature of SovYaz is identified in two documents selected for close reading, one a newspaper article, the other a top-secret NKVD report. That feature is then traced through other sources, including NCRL. The evolution of the feature is followed from the pre-revolutionary period to later times, sometimes all the way to the 21st century. Finally, the feature is described in some detail. In my experience, the emergence of the National Corpus makes possible a research methodology that transcends a close reading of selected documents but works well with it.
In keeping with this principle, Bakhtin postulates that the aesthetic act is the reassessment of, rather than a direct intervention into, empirical reality. In this constellation, artistic form is seen as the quintessential achievement of aesthetic activity that incorporates, but is categorically irreducible to, cognitively and ethically inarticulate material.
This episode does not only reflect the relation of the early Church to the Jews but was also used for centuries to construct and reconstruct the relations between the two religious communities. Symptomatically, the name of the disciple who plays a diabolical role in the scene, Judas, is an eminently Hebrew Jewish name. For many different reasons, the most prominent of which are analyzed in this article, this epic song had a much bigger impact on Serbian folk culture and folk imagination than did the original New Testament story.
Fortunately for the Jews, this meant that one of the most powerful traditional Christian anti-Semitic stereotypes was quite neutralized in Serbian folk culture.
However, unfortunately for the Serbian-Bosnian relationship, the Serbian parallel of the Last Supper created equally powerful images, which proved capable of producing and nourishing anti-Islamic and anti-Muslim stereotypes and sentiments in Serbian popular culture. This article is dedicated to a comparison of the New Testament story with its Serbian epic parallel, as well as to an analysis of the resonance of each of the two texts among their traditional publics.
This article provides a close structural and thematic reading of E. Palatalized velars in Russian are often considered exceptional because they are neither fully predictable, nor clearly unpredictable. To deal with intermediate phonological relationships in a principled way we must reconsider assumptions about the type and amount of information stored in the lexicon.
- scarlet moon weekly 18 to 24 tarot taurus.
- a to z horoscope maker and delineator.
- Jewish Service Providers.
- Anja Vukotic (@anja3vukotic) Followings | Instagram photos, videos, highlights and stories.
In this paper I show that in Russian, both palatalized and non-palatalized velars occur in a variety of contexts, evidence that they have the potential to distinguish words. I also show, using information-theoretic metrics, that the potential is utilized to a minimal degree across both lexical items and phonetic contexts. However, and importantly, I show that many other consonants likewise do not fully utilize the same palatalization contrast across contexts. I argue that it is not velars, or intermediate phonological relationships more generally, that are problematic.
Rather, it is our assumptions about the type and amount of information speakers store that is at issue. I argue that memory-rich models of the lexicon, which assume a great deal of storage of phonetic, contextual and distributional information, better account for velars in Russian. Moreover, the type of relationship that velars represent is a natural and expected outcome in such models. Thus, Russian velars provide important evidence that pushes us to reconsider some of the basic assumptions of our phonological models and phonological relationships more generally, and the problem that has long vexed Slavists can be solved within a memory-rich model of the lexicon.
Recent studies have provided evidence for a beneficial effect of orthographic input on the acquisition of second language phonological contrasts. In the present research, we explored whether the diacritic marks typically used to indicate lexical stress in Russian pedagogical texts are similarly helpful to second language learners. We taught native English speakers with varying amounts of Russian language experience a set of Russian non-words containing lexical stress minimal pairs.
In different word-learning conditions, we manipulated the presence of stress marks in the input to participants, and later tested participants on their ability to distinguish the newly learned lexical stress minimal pairs. We found no effect from the availability of stress marks for our participants, whose Russian language experience ranged from subjects with no exposure to Russian to students enrolled in third-year college-level Russian language courses.
We conclude by discussing crucial differences between the learning conditions in the present study and real-world Russian language acquisition, and calling for future research that investigates the effect of lexical stress marks in more authentic learning conditions. Why did Shestov change his mind on that issue? And what position exactly did he defend in Shakespeare and His Critic Brandes that he would subsequently dismiss? It especially seems to exemplify all the qualities of the late Tolstoy, from its totally focused style to its socially charged content.
The story divides into two main scenes linked by a key image, that of the formal dance. The first setting for the dance is the society ball itself with its set steps and figures executed to the strains of the mazurka, and other music. Here, in his youth, our narrator reaches what he describes as the peak experience of his life, his love for the regal Varenka. The second setting is the punishment gauntlet on the morning after the ball when a simple soldier is driven through the ranks to the sound of fife and drum, his body jerking back and forth under the blows of his assembled company as our narrator watches in shock and horror.
The artistic logic of the sequence impels the reader to an irresistible conclusion: the dance orchestrated by privilege is replaced by this grotesque dance of power. So this is a story of trauma and revelations, the story of a life-changing experience. In this case, the philosophical questions are not posed by the authorial voice, but are generated by the group to which the story is addressed and by the narrator himself.
They are some of the same questions that absorbed Tolstoy throughout much of his life. Can we know right from wrong, or does our social milieu determine our views? This is far from simple self-repetition for lack of new material, or a convenient way to fulfill a literary commission. Rather it reveals a form of deep patterning that occurs naturally, without overt self-referentiality.
Tolstoy feels impelled to respond to the mute reproach of the page of memory, but in the end we can feel the affirmation of his identity: I am still myself. Olesha engages in this project in order to challenge certain ideas laid out by Joyce regarding father-son relationships and the invention of a literary lineage. While similarities have been previously noted in passing, a sustained comparative analysis between Olesha and Joyce has not been undertaken.
Many similarities between the two novels can be noticed at various levels: structure, plot, character, style, and language. Individually they may seem coincidental. However, as they accrue it becomes clearer that the two works resonate strongly with one another. These connections can best be understood as a response from one writer to another as he attempts to conceptualize the issues facing his generation in a new epoch.
Given the historical and cultural circumstances surrounding Olesha, he found such an endeavor impossible. His response, Envy itself, aims to critique such a proposition by inverting and problematizing Joycean motifs. Rather, the works reserve their positive accents for unscrupulous artists who make only brief appearances late in the narrative.
The reason for this, I argue, is that both Pilnyak and Vaginov intend their artist-thieves as models for their own ironic modes of authorship. What I show is that both works represent subtle interventions in contemporary debates regarding the nature of Soviet vitality and timeliness. This paper takes an interdisciplinary approach to the study of identity and nationality in immigrants and, in particular, the intertwined issue of ethnicity and nationality as it is perceived and negotiated by Russian immigrants in the U.
One was solicited by the U. Federal Government and conducted during the decennial US census; another was part of a large empirical project on Russian immigration. The combined findings from both studies contribute to a complex issue of identity negotiation in Russian immigrants. This article considers the significance of an often forgotten character, Kalganov, in The Brothers Karamazov. It applies to this secondary character two theories of minorness, as outlined in the work of Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and Alex Woloch.
Throughout his career Dostoevsky worried that his novels included too many storylines, devoted too much time on secondary plots and secondary characters, and that their form suffered as a result. This article argues that, in The Brothers Karamazov , Dostoevsky uses the formal dilemma he himself faced can one compose an artistically coherent novel, while still respecting the human complexity of each and every character?
Or are some people simply impossible to live with? First I focus my analysis on the lecherous, garrulous sponger and very minor character Maksimov. And just as the other characters never quite find a place for Maksimov in their lives, the chronicler never quite finds a place for Maksimov in his tale. As Alyosha learns firsthand, it is just as difficult to build a harmonious, all-inclusive, brotherly community, as it is to compose an all-inclusive narrative in this case, as speech , one that does not reduce or marginalize any of its characters, one that does not leave anyone out.
By introducing into the ongoing scholarly discussion of this apparent textual anomaly previously inaccessible archival materials, I demonstrate that this evocation amounts to a complex, profoundly meaningful image. In both tales, the act of storytelling becomes a literal and figurative means of surviving the threat of starvation, although what it means to survive in this manner will be called into question. In both stories, survival and literary composition are complex artistic endeavors that reimagine the alignment of art and immortality in the wake of the gulags.
We offer an objective empirical approach to the status of this verb, using statistical analysis of 2, attestations of byti in comparison with 9, attestations of other verbs. This makes it possible to accurately locate byti in the context of the verbal lexicon of Old Church Slavonic. This comparison is undertaken in two rounds, one assuming that byti is a single verb, and the other assuming that it is a pair of verbs.
Both assumptions yield reasonable results, and although the grammatical profile analyses do not suffice to solve the controversy, they lay the groundwork for further analysis in Part Two that argues for a single-verb interpretation of byti. We analyze corpus data on the distribution of constructions in order to assess the status of this verb as either a single verb or an aspectual pair of verbs. Our study moves beyond a strict structuralist interpretation of the behavior of byti , instead recognizing the real variation and ambiguity in the data.
Our findings make both theoretical and descriptive advances. The radial category structure is a central tenet of cognitive linguistics, but until now such structures have usually been posited by researchers based on their qualitative insights from data.
We show that it is possible to identify both the nodes and the structure of a radial category statistically, using only linguistic data as input. We provide an enhanced description of byti that clearly distinguishes between core uses and those that are more peripheral and shows the relationships among them. While we find some evidence in support of an aspectual pair, most evidence points instead toward a single verb.
Hryhory Kvitka-Osnovianenko — is commonly regarded as a pioneer in Ukrainian literary history: he was the first to write fictional prose in vernacular Ukrainian and to create dignified, rather than comic, peasant characters. This article considers exemplary texts, both Ukrainian and Russian, from the corpus of his fiction in order to enquire into one aspect of the rhetoric of these works: the way in which they imagine, address and seek to change their audience.
The significant novelty of Kvitka-Osnovianenko lies in his evocation of this crypto-national audience. This article addresses both long-overdue and latest topics in Voloshin studies and the history of Russian literary response to the Revolution during the civil war from the perspectives of post-Soviet literary criticism.
The short film provides an exemplary illustration of the crystal-image. Most importantly, however, the concept helps to reveal critical aspects of Steamroller and Violin that have passed largely unnoticed in the five decades since it was made. Using a database of more than 1, u -verbs collected from various sources, this article examines how the two spatial schemas of u -, the ENTRY and the MOVE AWAY schema, relate to each other and how the concrete spatial meanings that these two schemas generate affect abstract meanings of the prefix.
The analysis develops a semantic network of u -verbs based on the database showing that the two schemas underlie the semantic profile of all the u -verbs: both those with and those without any apparent spatial motivation. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that the two seemingly contrasting schemas show not only differences, but also similarities. Moreover, these schemas blend at the constructional level. This article describes multiple aspectual correlations further MAC with more than two partners. Descriptions of Russian correlations of three partners aspectual triplets can be found in linguistic literature.
However, descriptions of correlations with more than four partners are practically non-existent. Moreover, the existing definitions of MACs do not relate to aspectual quintuplets, sextuplets, etc. Such a situation is justified by the following definition of MACs, as proposed by A. This article widens the understanding of an aspectual pair by introducing its new kind — a cross-correlated pair, which satisfies all requirements of aspectual pairedness, including identity of the root, and lexico-semantic identity, but allows for some difference in synonymic affixes.
In such pairs, semantic identity overcomes some difference in morphological expression. Comparing paired aspectual correlations with multiple ones permits us to substantiate the benefits of the latter. They provide a multiplicity of ways to express the meaning required by speakers, in order to avoid the boredom of sameness, etc. This article responds to a SEEJ article by VanPatten, Collopy, and Qualin concerning an experiment conducted to evaluate the effects of explicit grammatical explanation on the ability of adult learners to process subject-object inversion in Russian.
The experiment is replicative of prior studies devoted to Spanish and German, which the authors adapt to Russian. In the end, the authors conclude that explicit grammatical explanation does not facilitate the learning task they set for their examinees. They further use the results of this experiment to cast doubt on the efficacy of explicit grammatical explanation in general. The present response argues that, because of inadequacies in explanation, experimental design and procedure, and a flawed understanding of the subject they are investigating, the experiment they describe cannot be used to assess the value of explicit grammar explanation in foreign language teaching.
People and things lose their distinctiveness, and everything in Mirgorod starts to resemble everything else. There are relatively few literary landmarks before the twentieth century in which physical pain figures prominently. Though the representation of physical pain is also rare in nineteenth-century Russian literature, in several works of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, physical pain plays a surprisingly vital role.
But Dostoevsky ranges much further in his portrayal of power, exploring the links between pain and class, pain and power, and pain and humiliation. He also does not confine himself to the victims of pain, the recipients of corporal punishment, he shows as much interest in its perpetrators. Nor does he present the narrator, Alexander Petrovich Goryanchikov, as an objective observer.
The narrator sometimes imagines himself a victim, however, as a member of the ruling classes, he, too, is implicated in that terrible practice of inflicting pain-- corporal punishment -- that he presents as endangering the moral fiber of the nation. Leontiev rejected the idea of race as a biological category. He praised ethnic diversity as part of his notion of complex diversity in society. While his model of society was based on biological principles, his views on ethnic cultural diversity were not related to the biological model of race. Sergeev and G.
Nuzhdin, the reader discovers different characters and different stories. The choice of the names of the main characters and, consequently, the grammatical gender of the chosen names, guides the plot development in the three works to different situations, while the semantics of images associated with the chosen names affects the language and artistic images of the stories overall and calls the reader for dissimilar connotations and associations.
This article shows whether the translations are faithful to the original, what allusions the depicted images evoke, and how the translations are perceived within the receiving culture. This article reconsiders the theories and legacy of the poet Aleksandr Tufanov in light of his long poem The Pirates of Novgorod [ Ushkuiniki ].
Centered around an integral reading of this neglected work, the present article argues that Tufanov gravitated steadily toward a conception of language as an idealized carrier of cultural memory and of the poet as a subjective bridge to the national past. This utopian view of language provides grounds for reinterpreting the reasons underlying his break with the future oberiuty Daniil Kharms and Aleksandr Vvedensky. Anne Applebaum, a well-known American journalist and author, has lived primarily in Poland for more than twenty years, working and raising a family. Formally untrained in Polish, she nevertheless has acquired sufficient facility in the language to give occasional interviews on Polish television, several of which have been recorded and placed on YouTube.
Rather than having acquired Polish exactly, Applebaum has developed what Seliker and followers have called a fossilized interlanguage, a personal linguistic system for interfacing between English and Polish, which she manipulates with remarkable skill. While his model of society was based on biological principles, his views on ethnic cultural diversity were not related to the biological model of race.
Sergeev and G. Nuzhdin, the reader discovers different characters and different stories. The choice of the names of the main characters and, consequently, the grammatical gender of the chosen names, guides the plot development in the three works to different situations, while the semantics of images associated with the chosen names affects the language and artistic images of the stories overall and calls the reader for dissimilar connotations and associations. This article shows whether the translations are faithful to the original, what allusions the depicted images evoke, and how the translations are perceived within the receiving culture.
This article reconsiders the theories and legacy of the poet Aleksandr Tufanov in light of his long poem The Pirates of Novgorod [ Ushkuiniki ]. Centered around an integral reading of this neglected work, the present article argues that Tufanov gravitated steadily toward a conception of language as an idealized carrier of cultural memory and of the poet as a subjective bridge to the national past.
This utopian view of language provides grounds for reinterpreting the reasons underlying his break with the future oberiuty Daniil Kharms and Aleksandr Vvedensky. Anne Applebaum, a well-known American journalist and author, has lived primarily in Poland for more than twenty years, working and raising a family.
Formally untrained in Polish, she nevertheless has acquired sufficient facility in the language to give occasional interviews on Polish television, several of which have been recorded and placed on YouTube. Rather than having acquired Polish exactly, Applebaum has developed what Seliker and followers have called a fossilized interlanguage, a personal linguistic system for interfacing between English and Polish, which she manipulates with remarkable skill.
Among other things this study underlines by extrapolation the importance of formal language training, along with the careful attendance to grammatical structure, at early stages of the language-learning process if language fossilization is to be avoided. As a social and religious teacher Tolstoy searched for a proper balance between community engagement and moral self-perfection. A possible via media between these two extremes was a specific phenomenon in Russian Orthodox spirituality known as iurodstvo. In his dairies and writings Tolstoy several times discussed the virtues of iurodstvo , also as a model for his own ministry.
The iurodivye, like Tolstoy, aimed for a state of passionlessness, apatheia , which would enable them to endure the scorn of their fellow men. While these features of iurodstvo clearly appealed to Tolstoy, he nevertheless failed to adopt this form of spirituality as a model for his mission and holiness.
This method Tolstoy was unable to restrict himself to. Tolstoy develops this notion of the identity of ostensible opposites, as Karenin and Vronsky are both unable to provide Anna with the happiness she seeks. Tolstoy, similarly, depicts an irrevocable, inhuman agent of retribution waiting to crush what lies in its path. The article compares a number of examples from both the prose and poetry sections of the novel in order to describe the stance of the observing poet upon the threshold as aesthetically valuable only to the extent that it anticipates the ethically decisive step into history that, in imitation of Christ, affirms the eternal value of the self even as that self kenotically submits to its historical fate beneath the anonymizing gaze of the crowd.
Libri Inglesi di Computing - Computing - Libreria Universitaria - Pagina
An easily identifiable, yet insufficiently studied feature of official Soviet discourse is the ubiquitous deployment of statements that spell out hallowed Marxist-Leninist principles, immutable laws of socio-economic development, or the ethical norms of socialist society. The article examines statements of this kind, arguing for their significance in understanding Soviet, and in particular Stalinist, ideology. By analyzing multiple instances of official discourse, it seeks to show that Soviet gnomic statements are often semantically indeterminate.
This fact presents a challenge to influential semantic theories according to which gnomic statements should have only one—the universal—reading. It also raises intriguing questions about the ideological construction of reality within Stalinist culture. The Chilean martyr for communism comes to occupy the ideological space of the homo sacer in the Soviet press of the s and 80s, where his image served to strengthen and legitimize the regime. Verbal aspect developed in Russian when iterative thematization was grammaticalized in prefixed verbs. These unprefixed forms are stylistically marked in modern Russian and limited to the past tense.
Following aspectologists like Ju. Maslov and A. With verbal prefixation being handled in the syntax, aspectual morphology boils down to the thematization of the verb, e. A major role in verbal aspect is played the prefix. When it has spatial meaning, the P-V compound occurs freely in both perfective and imperfective sentences. And when it is semantically depleted empty the P-V cannot occur in an imperfective sentence.
The article deals with the issues of memory and identity in the latest novel by Serhiy Zhadan. The author argues that the novel operates according to the productive divergence between modern narrative structure and postmodern narrative strategy. As a postmodern work of art, however, Voroshylovhrad opens up new gaps in the interpretation of cultural memory and revisits the common understanding of the past, memory, forgetting, and the possibility of integrating Ukrainian society.
While not unconditionally debunked, the modern narrative structure is destabilized by the postmodern narrative strategy, which is deployed most effectively in the trope of memory in the novel. Contrary to conventional wisdom that sees a uniquely Russian derivation of his religious ideas, recent studies argue that motifs of Eastern Orthodoxy are occasional, and mostly peripheral in his novels. The present essay concurs that religious ideas in Dostoevsky have a syncretic foundation, and argues that his religious themes center on the idea of authentic self, elements of which emanate from sources familiar to Dostoevsky in syncretic philosophy of German Romanticism and Neoplatonism.
Prince Myshkin, Elder Zosima, and Alyosha Karamazov are discussed as examples of inwardly illumined characters, who typify embodiments of the authentic self revealed by insight of a numinous quality. Symptoms of biological degeneration and decadence characterize both Dudkin himself, and the novel's other main heroes, Nikolai Apollonovich and Apollon Apollonovich Ableukhov.
In a close reading of the Ableukhov and Dudkin plotlines, the image of degeneration emerges as a thread uniting the novel's heroes both to one another, and to the city in which their story unfolds. Most deluded of all is Ganin who is convinced that Mary, now Mrs. Alferov and on her way from Soviet Russia to join Mr. He finds confirmation for his misguided assumptions in her love letters written to him during the Civil War, which he has kept over the years of emigration.
A careful perusal of these letters indicates however that already in Russia Mary was considering other options than Ganin, including Alferov. This is a work by Blok that Nabokov detested but he used it for his own Mary-myth, especially in regard to the symbolic equation of the Beloved and the Homeland Rodina. Michael Idov is the first writer since Vladimir Nabokov to self-translate a novel from English into Russian.
His debut novel Ground Up was published under the title Kofemolka in Moscow. Lolita and Ground Up both present formidable challenges to a Russian translator. This article compares the various translational strategies that the two writers have adopted to render American popular culture and slang, bilingual puns, foreign accents, sound effects, and poetry.
Both Nabokov and Idov expressed disappointment with their Russian self-translations and proclaimed them to be inferior to the American original of their novels. The former represents a political allegory of Japanese national trauma in the postwar period , while the latter reveals traces of McCarthyism and anti-Semitism during the Cold War in America.
This essay explores the Hrabal and Schulz examples in order to tackle the question of the adaptability of modernist or at least less realist — in this case: grotesque — literature into visual artistic media — in this case: comics. What this essay focuses on, therefore, is whether, and if so, how these graphic narrative adaptations of modernist fiction have reinterpreted and transcoded the typically grotesque features of their literary counterparts. During the period of to Vasilii Rozanov produced a number of autobiographical works that venture beyond life writing into other literary forms and even forms of visual communication.
Expressing his specific dissatisfaction with the inadequacy of language, Rozanov critiques not only literary conventions, but language as a system of symbolic communication that encompasses various forms of signs. Taken at face value, his memoir reveals that for as long as he could remember, he was a stand-alone figure with regard to humor: he found it where others did not, or rather, he created it where others were unprepared or unable to see it.
In both poems, Mayakovsky allies himself as speaker with a lone victim of widespread scorn, offering idiosyncratic consolations that utilize his own humor—a humor steeped in the language and attitudes of childhood—as an antidote to and shield from vicious laughter. The purpose of this essay is to describe the category structure of Verbs of Speaking in Russian.
A Speech event is realized variously in a complicated event structure. Traditionally the meaning of a linguistic unit can be considered discomposable into parts, and the reassembly of the parts produces the meaning, but a number of units in natural language have already shown that this decomposition theory does not explain all cases.
Instead of this semantic decomposition theory, in the present study network analysis is used. A network analysis can be divided into micro and macro network analyses: The micro network analysis involves the constructional characteristics of the verbal phrases, while the macro network analysis pertains to a group of words with conceptual similarities. In other words, this network analysis is an attempt to investigate the meaning of a language unit integrating conceptual and morphosyntactic approaches.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This integration method may represent both the inherent semantic structure and the status of the unit in the whole lexicon more effectively than the decompositional approach. This method is similar to WordNet in a way, but it is different in its method of investigation. Simultaneously this method helps to reduce the number of subjective interpretations on the part of the researcher.
Using the Russian National Corpus is another way to examine existing theories and semantic descriptions. This research intends to find a way of testing the current theories and of describing the use of a language unit more accurately and empirically. At the heart of Berlinsko okno is the idea that, not unlike post Germany, Serbia should confront its recent past, especially its role in the wars of Yugoslav succession.
Emphasizing the task of not forgetting the victims of the violence of the s, the novel provocatively engages in the current debate among Serbian writers and literary critics about the social role and political relevance of literature today. This article discusses the nature of some of the mathematical ideas entertained by Daniil Kharms and other former members of the OBERIU and chinari group in the s.
- SEEJ Table of Contents!
- astrology november 27 2019.
- 27 january gemini horoscope 2020?
This interest is deliberately and programmatically amateurish, and is socially opposed to the institutionalization of knowledge at the same time as it is epistemologically opposed to rationalism in the broad sense of the term. This article for the first time examines the poetic voice of a fictitious Symbolist woman poet and literary diva, Cherubina de Gabriak , created by poets Maximilian Voloshin and Elizaveta Dmitrieva.
The author focuses on the personal subtext of Cherubina de Gabriak's poetry, which made a living poet out of an artificial mask: the themes of love and poetic self-determination. Dobroliubov and N. Chernyshevsky is built around two potentially conflicting principles. In his view, Krzhizhanovsky subjects the nature of reality and our sense of the mind's activity to radical intellectual experimentation. The myriad short stories and novellas created by Russian Modernist author Sigizmund Krzhizhanovsky distill the scientific, philosophical, and literary essence of his era and encapsulate it in prose filled with pyrotechnic wordplay.
Often framed as a prodigious yet ultimately unsuccessful talent besieged by phobias, dogged by fickle fate and doomed by mystically self-fulfilling prophecies, Krzhizhanovsky was actually finely attuned to problems that were of paramount importance to his literary contemporaries.
In particular, Krzhizhanovsky was intrigued and inspired by scientific and philosophical theories surrounding the existence of a fourth dimension, including those of Minkowski, Uspensky, and Bergson, and by popular experiments in optics and the nature of light. Among the protagonists in his stories are many starving, idealistic writers and inventors, as well as figures from Western philosophy whom Krzhizhanovsky has fictionalized into his imaginative narratives. In a key essay from , Krzhizhanovsky uses a systematized series of schemata, description, and reasoning to position theater in a model of levels of consciousness that relates the theater to both the Continental philosophical tradition and to everyday life.
Sigizmund Krzhizhanovsky — is best known today as a phantasmagorical, metaphysical prose writer in the style of Zamyatin or Bulgakov. In his own time, his prose, negatively reviewed by Maxim Gorky in and largely unpublished, was hardly known at all. He also wrote plays himself. Ten of his stage scenarios survive as of , three have been published in Russian and one in English. All of these interests were borderline unorthodox for the Stalinist Shakespeare industry, which published him warily.
The Shavians were a smaller, more flexible group. First, it establishes links to celebrated Russian authors such as Dostoevsky and Gogol, in whose work the Easter tale and its themes play a vital role, as a way to explore issues of narrative and cultural authority. The present study attempts to show how Petrushevskaia negotiates the boundaries of this paradox and the Easter tale genre itself as she expresses both hope in and the failure of its true function — to effect a kind of resurrection of meaning in the atomized society of the Stagnation. In desperate straits and vulnerable to predators such as Anna Fyodorovna, Varenka turns to her only male friend and benefactor, Devushkin, for a means of escape: marriage and the protection it would grant her.
She carefully cultivates her feelings for her older neighbor, eventually coming to love and respect him in a more-than-platonic way. Devushkin, however, is too insecure and downtrodden to see in her actions anything but rejection, thereby forcing Varenka to turn to Bykov in the end. Her marriage to the man who despoiled her serves as the final evidence that Varenka would have accepted a proposal from Devushkin, had he ever offered one.
Who is Prince Myshkin? This question is central to The Idiot. In the novel, the question is bifurcated into questions of identity and diagnosis, which are inextricably bound together. The title of the novel itself certainly points to the importance of his diagnosis in regard to his identity. Dostoevsky was well read in the sphere of medicine and was quite knowledgeable on every aspect of epilepsy, including prognosis, treatment, and related conditions. This article applies this body of knowledge to The Idiot.
This paper traces these additional allusions and also asks why they are there in the first place beyond their obvious function to parody Wagner opera, not least the librettos. The assumption is that Nabokov wanted to convey more than his disrespect for Wagner's music and poetry. Pnin intimates that ideological myth-making produces convictions which are neither intellectually, nor ethically, valid, even when presented in haunting film cadres, such as found in Lang's The Nibelung.
German-born Dr. Why is he loyal to Russian Pnin though? How does the Russian literature taught by Pnin fit into the program of Hagen's journal Europa nova and the planned course Wingless Europe? Hagen is not the only character in the novel to yield to ideological seductions of the mythopoeic kind. The point of Nabokov's irony is that much academe is non-academic for a variety of dubious reasons.
Due to insufficient research into idiolects in Shakespeare and its controversial nature, Pasternak was compelled to come up with his own solutions for speech individualization, which are dependent on his perceptions of the characters. This essay examines the popularization of Russian museum culture via periodical press during the second half of the nineteenth century. This dialogue, uniquely preserved by the contemporary press, allows us to document how the museum age was written. It also demonstrates that Russian museums and exhibitions were fashioned in the popular press as much as they were by architects, curators, and patrons.
While exhibitions and museums proper take care of material objects, the discourse constructed around them deals with the portrayal of these objective realities in light of national ideologies, public opinion, and personal preferences. A historically grounded analysis of this discourse gives insight into the larger process of culture making via writing. Between the two modes of representation which are at work in the museum—the visual and the verbal—layer upon layer of meaning have been created over time.
If Dostoevsky points to salvation through truth, Sologub points to perdition through self-deception. Repressed guilt like redemption in both cases is conveyed indirectly through an artistic code of doubling and parallels. Like Raskolnikov, Login commits an ax murder and escapes the consequences of his crime through a series of fortuitous circumstances; only he does not confess and accept punishment like his predecessor did. It seems that Login is free to pursue his own definition of happiness unimpeded by any moral restrictions whatsoever.
But as Login walks toward that vaguely happy horizon, some ominous suggestions follow the pretense of his buoyant stride. Her longest poetic cycle, Lavinia consists of seventy-eight short poems written from the perspective of a fictional nun, at times deeply religious, at times heretical. Throughout the book, Shvarts brings together disparate worlds: Christianity and Buddhism; the temple and the body; the ritualized past and the individualized present.
I argue that this urge to integrate, combined with a desire to value and preserve the distinct parts, defines Lavinia and the spiritual journey which it contains. This research study describes how English L1 readers use grammatical knowledge when reading L2 Russian informational texts. The study uses introspective verbal protocols i. Although both reader factors breadth and depth of L2 lexical knowledge, background knowledge, motivation, strategies, etc. The article considers in detail how readers render two frequent features of formal Russian writing strings of adnominal genitives and Russian passive constructions.
This article describes a study on the relative effects of explicit information on the processing of nominative and accusative case by L2 learners of Russian. Forty-four participants were divided into two groups: those who received explicit information prior to a treatment involving processing structured input and those who did not. The main assessment was trials to criterion how many items it took before the participants began to interpret sentences correctly.
Our results show no significant effects for explicit information. The present essay identifies the topos of our travelers and the English as a prism that illuminates the rise of a vacation mentality in imperial Russia. Although these texts are seventy years apart, I argue that the way in which Karamzin emphasizes the process of crossing the border from Russia to Europe in Letters of a Russian Traveler serves as a reference point for Dostoevsky in his Winter Notes on Summer Impressions.
In both texts I explore the relationship between Russian identity and the phenomena of writing and travel. For Karamzin, travel is a matter of choice and a cosmopolitan endeavor that reaffirms his Europeanized Russian identity; for Dostoevsky, the perceived lack of any core Russian identity and the impossibility of accessing a Russian homeland renders travel an inescapable fate for the Russian educated elite.
While Chekhov has often been described as an objective recorder of reality, his stories probe what and how one can in fact know. The author figures this problem in his very mode of narration.
Whether one can present the reader with knowledge of the world through narrative parallels the problem of whether one can know another person, or anything outside of oneself. Chudakov and others have argued ; yet in his middle period in particular, the author undermines the capacity of objective narration to convey knowledge and at key moments allows subjective notes to predominate. Building on distinctions made by Hans Georg Gadamer in Truth and Method , the author considers knowledge in terms of engagement with cultural forms, especially musical and ritual key cases for Gadamer.
As subjective narration here implies a removal of the divide between subject and object, Chekhov uses musical performance to imply a removal at least imagined of boundaries between characters. Fateful Eggs condenses the science of eugenics into a ray of electric light that promises new and improved human beings but that delivers only monstrous distortions of nature. To make his novel appear ideologically correct, Ilchenko alludes to the Soviet hierarchy of nationalities in conspicuous ways, but then turns this hierarchy on its head with unexpected, ironic twists of his plot. The novel influenced the reading public at a crucial, uncertain point in the formation of Ukrainian identity.
Published at the end of the thaw, when a new crackdown on national expression was heralded by the press, Kozats'komu rodu inspired readers to continue asserting their pride in being Ukrainian. Many ideas encoded in the novel also anticipate samvydav protests of the 60s and 70s. Plots Gene Fitzgerald Michael C.
Finke and Michael Holquist, ed. Johnson Barry P. Scherr, James Bailey, and Vida T. Johnson, ed. Pasternak Barry P. Scherr Olga Bakich. Skomp and Benjamin M. Johnson Hanna Chuchvaha. Nicholas Marina Frolova-Walker. Rubchak, ed. Plots Gene Fitzgerald Lewis Bagby. Johnson Deborah A. Martinsen and Olga Maiorova, ed. Dostoevsky in Context. Elizabeth Blake Aileen M. Johnson Alexander Etkind. Russian Literature Since Barry P. Scherr Jack V. Haney, ed. The Complete Folktales of A.
Afanas'ev Linda J. Ivanits Fyodor Dostoevsky. Notes from the Underground. Kirsten Lodge. Roberts, guest editors. Vilnius between Nations, — Curtis G. Murphy Irina Kor Chahine, ed. Hickey Lars Kleberg. Scherr Harriet Murav and Gennady Estraikh, ed. Oblivion David J.
Galloway Sergey Gandlevsky. Pratt Ewa Mazierska and Michael Goddard, ed. White Michelle Facos and Thor J. Mednick, ed. French and Russian in Imperial Russia. White Harai Golomb. Slavica Occitania. Johnson Halina Filipowicz. Pratt Ala Zuskin Perelman. Two Fates. Garza Mikhail N. Epstein, Alexander A. Genis, Slobodanka M.
Giustino, Catherine J. Plum, and Alexander Vari, ed. Johnson Vitaly Leonidovich Katayev. Lithuanian Root List Mark J. Elson Lidia Federica Mazzitelli. Tvorchestvo A. Chekhova v svete sistemnogo podkhoda: kollektivnaia monografiia Marija Fedjanina Julia Friedman. Adrian Wanner Marianna S. Scherr Pushkin, Alexander. Forrester and Martha M. Kelly, ed. Poems of Osip Mandelstam. Natalia Vygovskaia Teffi.